Mango tree with the scientific name is Mangifera Indica L, belongs to Anacardiacae. Mango has many varieties, but there are essentially two groups of the same group of Indian mangoes (single particle embryos) and mango trees Southeast Asian groups (multi-embryonic seeds). Single-embryo group often mango fruit year round.
Mango trees are deciduous evergreen trees, easy to grow and easy to care for plants suitable for cultivation works and shade trees, garden trees in urban parks, villas, green landscape just created, just for effect Oh. Currently, Mango trees along with alligator tree, jackfruit trees are fruit trees are being selected to make shade tree planting, tree works in landscape construction projects, new residential areas, construction each.
With mango trees planted as urban greenery, tree works, shade trees, do not care much about fertilization.
Planting mango fruit
Fruit planted with mango trees, we need to care about sewing technique for high yield.
1. Land: Mango trees can grow on various types of land: the land of gold, red gold, land Feralit, ancient alluvial soil, alluvial soils along rivers and new, including on coastal sandy mounds, but it is best planted in sandy soil or sandy meat, drained, soil must be at least 1,5-2m thick, shallow lakes not exceed 2.5 m level. Compared with other fruit fruits, Mango is the best tolerant plants. Slightly less fertile land helped ease many mango trees flower and fruit, too fertile soil just enough water to help mango tree grows well, but little fruit. Mango trees suitable from 5.5 to 7 pH soils, soil pH less than 5 mango trees will underdevelopment. In the lowlands before planting mango trees should be raised bed so that the water level at the highest point of a mango tree at least 1m.
2. Crop: Mango trees are grown year round but the best is at the beginning of the rainy season. However, if planted with small amounts can grow into many different seasons, as long as the time to avoid the hot and cold weather and after planting to provide sufficient water for the mango tree.
3. Variety: There are 5 varieties Mangoes are widely sold on the market:
Asian. Cat Hoa Loc Mango Tree: Made in Hoa Loc Giang Cai Be, just high commercial value left by the delicious, beautiful form of fruit, average fruit weight from 450-500gr. If well cared for 20-year-old mango trees can yield more than 300kg. Currently, Cat Hoa Loc mango varieties are usually propagated by grafting eye, grafted and only after 3 years fortune mango tree will fruit.
b. Cat Chu Mango Tree: it is the most commonly grown in Dong Thap, good quality, very high yields (30-year-old mango trees on yield from 800-1.200kg / tree / year), the average fruit weight 250 -350 gr, mango trees have very strong growth, often propagated by grafting or eye grafting.
C. Mango Siamese: Although not widely known, but the quality mango fruit delicious Siem roughly equivalent to Cat Hoa Loc mango, high yield rate due to more fruit. Siamese mango trees have life and more vitality.
d. Grapefruit Mango Tree: Grown ago, mango seedling tree seedlings prices are cheap. After nearly three years of mango fruit Grapefruit fortune. Easy Grapefruit Mango fruit flowering, high yield. 7-8 year old trees can give an average yield of 70-80 kg, smelly crust, thick crust should relatively easy storage and can be transported away. However, Mango Grapefruit for poor quality so little attention growers.
Hey. Imported varieties: Currently, a number of exotic mango varieties being tested and trials, some varieties proved adaptable and can be introduced into production as Nam Dork Mai mango trees, mango trees Cul Si Pan, Dance away with mango trees, mango trees Sok-a nan.
Choosing varieties of mango
Mango trees are propagated by a variety of methods such as seed, I guess, the most popular puzzle … but still is grafting. Specifically: mango varieties are grafted on rootstock varieties of mango grapefruit or mango trees, mango trees are nursed in the sky black plastic 20-22cm in height, 12cm in diameter elected. Electing not damaged or broken. Grafted mango trees grow well, body fat mango trees, scion height 40-50cm, 1cm diameter (measured above the graft wound about 2cm), with 2-3 buds. Green mango leaves, no insect tracks.
Some methods of extraction, eye transplant mango tree as follows:
Mango tree extraction method.
– Select plants, cuttings:
The breeding confirmed mango trees can be propagated by extracting the stem. However, with mango trees harder than other crops; need to prepare for success. Firstly, I guess from the mango trees are healthy enough for the prolific tree. Select the mango tree had fruit, aged 5-15 because of the need to exploit the ability of seedlings early fruit. For older mango trees, just extract the young shoots similar to those mentioned above. I guess only successful period of growth, fitness and mango trees bear fruit. Best discount mango tree in the period after harvest and after care mango tree has recovered and has created the first complete tray – the leaf buds on. The extract of mango trees too close after fertilization will easily fail.
– Action mango extracts:
How to extract mango tree like marcotting other trees as guava, lychee, longan including frozen and peeled bunch elected … But a lot of pus should mango tree after freezing and peeled wood core should clean place peel trace, not to countless branches left on the wood core or pus overflow connecting two mango trees cut scene. Exposure conditions permit, natural stain peeled 1-2 days will elect will make eating more bundles. We need to strengthen the roots of a mango tree extract using one of growth stimulants such as NAA, IBA and so on – trade name or refer to as “rooting stimulant”. Required use of mulch suitable for election as coco peat batch has enough moisture soak washed. Use a plastic bag and plastic wire, tight hands to mulch retains moisture for the development of mango extract roots scene. Also suitable extraction time at each mango tree also to pay attention weather, high-success marcotting cool weather on the day, no rain. After 4-5 months, the roots of the full and early voting has turned yellow roots will cut off the mother and brought into the mango tree nurseries, remove plastic bag, nursing a few months before planting
However, due to manufacturing yield low mango varieties should work harder to succeed at the mango tree extract is applied in practical production.
Eye Transplant Method mango trees.
Process mango varieties by grafting rootstock eyes must prepare before 1-1.5 years. If only a few varieties of mango trees, then find the mango trees uprooted adapt and prepare for transplantation. Also need to prepare very carefully grafts and transplants need skilled workers.
– Make mango tree rootstocks:
Technical Experts said that mango seeds selected from the same rootstock as likely to adapt to climatic and soil conditions of the locality. Choose seeds of mango varieties grown locally, selling mango varieties like mango wild forests, small mango tree leaves, tree muom, trees are turning. Recently recommendation, grain varieties of delicious mango tree or the expected rootstock breeding work will preserve the highest level of mango delicious children not affected by the “bad side” of the rootstock than a few parts brooch.
Should choose the mango varieties in multi-embryo group rootstock to obtain uniformity in the nursery. Specifically, the use of a mango tree nuts, shell beads used shears, splitting embryos in mango seeds to nurseries, a 5 or 6 seed embryos for 5-6 rootstock seedling nursery work. After embryo for “seedlings” shall “in the nursery transplants. Land mango rootstock nursery is slightly sandy loam soil easier to stomach without being an elected after successful eye transplants. Mango tree nurseries have very thick density (25x30cm) should be looked after, fertilizing watering full Mango Mango tree grafting to achieve the uniformity. After incubation period of 1-1.5 years, mango trees around 2.5cm in diameter (measured at a distance of 20cm and above ground) that can be used for transplantation.
Upon rootstock stem diameter Mango was above must stop fertilizing, about 1 month before transplantation, but maintaining water, healthy trees, with many plastics, easy to peel, with the ability to work well with the grafts.
– Prepare for Mango grafts.
Choose healthy mango trees with a diameter similar or marginally better than the rootstock little. That is the section of stem buds with sparse leaves close eye for easy access. Before the date planned for 2-3 weeks conducting transplant shell 2-3 cm folded piece stems take root grafts. Some people use scissors to cut off the leaf blade cut sections taking grafts and young leaves tip. Both of these approaches to make eye mango (meristem under cover where axillary branches) put up, easy to peel and survival of grafts high. Use secateurs removed “chopsticks transplant” mango tree leaves, on each rod has about 10 to 10 grafts to transplant stem allows. What the transplant graft wand nấy the preservation of professional instrumentation, avoid sunshine and gentle to the grafts not be broken “rice grains”. Use a sharp knife to cut short petioles hunchback, but also easy to transplant satisfactory living grafts after transplantation.
– Mango eye transplant operation.
Grafting or graft window T – H is done with special-purpose inserts. Knife open shell injection rootstock T or H 20 cm original way. Use separate knives and injecting 4 the transplant grafts from chopsticks. Sweet sting, decisively and widths to fit reached the tee or shell letter H on rootstock. Pressure woody grafts into newly opened vertically and grafts shell upwards. Use wire to the black plastic wrapped tightly, squeezing his eyes rootstock grafted into the body from the top down direction to be able sure rainwater or irrigation water reached the grafted wound. process to quickly manipulate the latex hand to rootstocks and scions mixed together to embrace grafts of woody rootstock. This new eye transplant is complete switch to the other eye. After about 1 month grafts examined by cutting nylon cord wrapped fresh grafts grafts is a good sign. Wait twenty days, the peak growth of grafts familiar environment fresh and still is regarded as our successful transplants conducted defoliation for creating grafts sprouting shoots.
– Kind and caring mango seed before planting
Wetting the previous day nursery land. The following morning using a spade or knife wool (specialized transplant uprooted) lovely 2 deep puffs of wool tongue grab the mango tree rootstock put into black plastic bags, add soil mixing to nursing seedlings. After 3-4 months of care, the mango tree leaves to complete the second floor can be planted in the garden.
Keep in mind that using stimulants flowering, increased fruit once a year. May apply for mango trees brought pre-season, but not wrong. Do not stimulate on the flowers. Spraying the trees, dry leaves and intends no rain about 6 hours after injection. KNO3 spray completely drenched leaves but does not flow into droplets. Spray early in the morning after sunrise until about 9 o’clock in the morning, or late in the evening sprayed from 4-5 pm in order to avoid the possibility of discoloration caused by leaves sunlight directly.
Technique Mango tree planting and care
Asian. Prepare the soil:
In the delta, depending on the elevation of the land makes the wooden double or single raised bed, so that the wooden surface to ensure a higher level in order to ensure that the highest.
b. Apply it on the wooden models:
With a diameter of 80-100cm, 30cm, embankment tissue components including 70% topsoil, 30% manure, compost, 200-300gr DAP, 3-5 kg of rice husk ash. All mix earth into tissue, with straw on the tissue covering. To protect against termites, ants nest under the root, can mix ingredients added to 5-10 gr mound Basudin drugs or Furadan. Model prepared before placing the tree about 2-4 weeks.
C. High ground not raised beds:
Digging holes measuring 70 cm in size, 60 cm deep. Ingredients fill such holes.
d. Planting distance:
Grapefruit Mango trees can grow (6m x 6m), other mango varieties (7m x 7m) or (8m x 8m) intensive case can be grown thicker with distance (7m x 5m) or (6mx 5m) .
Can be intercropped other crops to take advantage of extra land and increase income in the early years. Mixed crops depending on local, note avoid consumption nutritious crops like ginger, corn, cassava, sugar cane …
Hey. Planting mango:
Digging holes (on scale or pit) recently elected by Mango seed size. Before planting, pocket knife slitting PE Mango same place the tree down, pay attention to keep the mango upright. Crutches prop plug the Mango tree.
Mango Tree Care:
Period mango trees are small, or planting is 1-3 years old. This period of strong growth trees most of the year to complete the canopy frame. Therefore, the provision of adequate fertilizer, enough water, weed eradication regularly to create favorable conditions for the growth of mango trees is essential.
During the mango trees are small watering can proceed throughout the year to provide enough water for the young buds formation and development. Especially in the early stages after planting, watering should be maintained from 3-4 days / times. Later in the shrinking number of watering, but must maintain regular moisture to the soil around the root area. To limit weeds and prevents water evaporation process should using straw, dry grass around the base, cabinet canopy has a radius 0,8-1m, and blank area to the original 20cm to limit insects, insect nests, destroying the mango tree.
At the beginning of the mango trees are small so there are weeds growing conditions, development. So, weeding should be carried out regularly and take a lot of work effort. However, depending on the characteristics of each region have behaved different suitable grass. If only garden of broadleaf weeds straight stem development, the eradication of weeds will simply help take the more. This type of herbicide way simplest is a long staff with a knife, the knife was bent like a crescent. When the tall grass, the knife about 20cm horizontal development close to the ground to cut off the grass stems. Severed body parts are collected, dried and then cover around a tree.
– Treatment for early flowering mango trees:
Employment is aimed at avoiding harvest fell. Of course, growers must consider carefully and eligibility, technical proficiency to be able to do the treatment for early flowering mango trees. For old mango trees may be watered drugs at the Mango Tree is 1-2 sprouts, for young trees are irrigated at 2-3 sprouts tree. Watering the tree has the last sprout leaves about 10cm or silk. Can use certain drugs to inhibit growth as Paclobutrazol 10% irrigation, 10cc dose mixed with 5-10 liters of water for irrigation and canopy diameter 1m watch Mango tree, then moisturizing 20 days. 2 months after using KNO or Dola 02X.
– Protect flowers and immature fruit mango:
The protection of flowers and immature fruit mango is very important. Can spray (Pyrinex, Sago Super, Butyl) protect its 1st flower inflorescence 2-3cm long to control sucking pests. Second spraying when the flower reaches its maximum size. Then, stop spraying to protect beneficial insects help pollinate flowers. In this phase, if heavy rain, especially in the rainy night, the next morning vibration branches to fall down the flower is not pollinated, combined spraying prevent anthracnose fungus (medication Bendazol, Carbenzim, dosages oriented paste). Every stop raining is sprayed. When young fruit reaches the size in diameter 1-2mm (also known as pea caviar), endorsed a vaccine injection. Use of drugs like Antracol, Viben-C, and spray Pyrinex, Fastac to prevent pest. After Mango fruit trees often fall through the period of physiological, lasts about 35-45 days. Through this period, the results do not fall anymore Mango. This phase, which is the most effective left to limit the use of pesticides that still protect the mango from pests, just make beautiful white mango peel. In nature, trees are often sporadic flowering mango not simultaneously. Mango trees to flowering focus must treated with potassium-nitrogen-burning (KNO 3) 1.25 to 1.5% concentration (1 liter of water and 12-15g KNO 3) spray the leaves of the mango, need attention to spray evenly to achieve high efficiency. After spraying mango flowering 3-7 days.
Pest control for Mango
– Anthracnose of Mango: black rot disease flowers, fall flowers, black rot on mangoes. Use Score 250 EC Benlat C or spray from blossoming to 2 months after the 7-day spray 1 times, then spray 1 time 1 month.
– Powdery mildew in Mango: Infection and damage the leaves, flowers, fruits, especially flowers and inflorescences of mango trees. Use MZ 72WP Rhidomila, Anvil 5SC …
– Patients black soot in Mango: Do excretion of aphids, use: Bassa 50 EC, Trebon 2.5 EC and can spray the fungicides have the original contract …
– Rice blast in Mango: The disease develops in the rainy season, causing damage mainly on the leaves. Preventing disease by leaf removal, spraying Rhidomil MZ 72 WP, Kasumin 2L …
– Borer, perforated mango tree: Use light traps catch the worm matures, holes injected drugs or taking strong internal steam steamed as: Actara 25 WG, Padan 95SP, plug the hole with clay to kill young worms .
– Ray green mango: Ray discharge pathogenic heating season, as mango underdeveloped. Time harmful sharply from October last year to June next year. Use Bassa 50 EC, Trebon 2.5 EC, 40 EC Supracide, Song code 24.5 EC …
– Mango fruit fly: Fruit fly into effect at the old shells, lay eggs under the bark, eat fruit maggot rot, fruit drop. Use Sherpa 25 EC, Green Paint 0.26 DD, Padan 95 SP.
– Mango bud rot disease: Because fungal infestation Dipldia Natalensis on branches, leaves, fruit. Shoots appear dark spots spreading up the leaf. Leaves are also turning to brown, cover the leaves washed up on. Can see pus on infected branches. Rip stems sick can see inside with brown stripes due to damaged vascular plastic. The disease thrives at high air humidity, spread during the rainy season. On the left, the left cortex waterlogged stalks around dark, then spread into the black area round, after 2-3 days can cause fruit rot. How prevention and treatment: regular use at Bordeaux spray detection. In mangoes can embed in borax solution (borax) diluted at a concentration of 0.06%.
Fertilization for Mango
– Mango immature stage:
Every year should be applied every NPK 16-16-8 stem from 200-400g and about 200 grams of urea, fertilizer is divided into 2 was applied in early and late season. How fertilizer can be applied in holes evenly around the stem under the scope of the canopy and root from 0.3-0.5. Also, the additional fertilizer KOMIX 1-3 kg of fruit used for organic matter to replenish soil mango help develop stability.
– Phase mature mango trees:
Fertilize at least 2-5 kg / tree fertilizers NPK 16-16-8 and 3-4 kg of KOMIX, division 2 was applied at the beginning of the rainy season (when trees bearing fruit) and 9-10 on the calendar month ( before flowering). The amount of fertilizer can increase after years of winning seasons to recover fruit trees next year.
Can use fertilizer NPK 14-14-14 dedicated or 16-16-8 NPK fertilizer to fertilize the mango.
Dose stumpage Mango fertilizer is as follows: From 5-6 years: Apply for each tree from 0.5 – 1 kg of NPK 14-14-14 + 3 – 4 kg of organic fertilizer. From 7-14 years: Apply 1kg increase per year of NPK fertilizer 14-14-14 + 1kg dedicated organic fertilizer. 15 – 20 years and older each year more fertilizer than 14-year period from 2 – 3 kg NPK 14-14-14 + 2 – 3 kg of organic fertilizer per tree Mango. Fertilize 1 time or divided into 2 doses applied at the start of the rainy season and before the end of the rainy season. Fertilizers can also be applied in the dry season if there is sufficient water. Digging a trench around the trunk of mango trees from 1 – 2 m diameter, depth 15 – 30 cm, placed manure and landfill or applied in holes from 6-8 holes around the trunk Mango.
To increase profits can use chemical fertilizers stimulate increased flowering fruit trees like mango fertilizers potassium nitrate (KNO 3). Fertilizers containing nitrogen and 46% to 13% of potassium, which helps enhance the potassium to the plant, stimulating flowering fruit increased effectiveness. However, in order for the production of highly profitable and long-term sustainability, before stimulating the flowering mango trees, people should be aware that the flowers and fruit to develop changes on different mango varieties.
Also do not use chemicals, fertilizer stimulates leaf flowering mango tree when it is too small, too young leaves and buds, or when the trees are sprouting, buds sprouted, have left or are sick, in a rainy day and after harvest. High doses (2.0 – 3.0%) spray when the weather is cold or overcast, when plants started to develop Mango trees can mature or healthy leaves and buds. Applying low doses (1.0 – 1.5%) while the hot weather or when a large mango tree, old or fully mature, healthy.
When old mango, bright red pods, seed ripening characteristics of the harvest. Should gather on cool days and dry. Mangoes harvested in need sorting. If long hauls are packed into crates or barrels of not more than 5 layers (close to a straw basket or paper between layers results). After harvesting, hygienic surrounding mango trees, pruning old and diseased branches and continuing care.